King Chapter 6 Test Bank

 

1. Akira Haraguchi recited the digits of pi to the first 83,431 decimal places in 2005. Psychologists consider Haraguchi _____.

A. a fraud

B. autistic

C. a mnemonist

D. mentally retarded

Answer: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: easy

Feedback: page 189

Learning goals: the nature of memory

 

2. _____ involves retaining information over time.

A. Learning

B. Memory

C. Priming

D. Amnesia

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: easy

Feedback: page 190

Learning goals: the nature of memory

 

3. In order to remember the content of what you’ve read in this textbook, you will need to ______ the information.

A. encode

B. store

C. retrieve

D. All of these

Answer: D

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 190

Learning goals: the nature of memory

 

4. Nicholas is a waiter who wants to be able to take complex orders from large parties without writing them down. What can he do to increase his memory performance under such circumstances?

A. He should try to remember the person’s face, and imagine each person eating the food he or she has ordered.

B. He should pay attention to the chatter going on at the table behind him.

C. He should wait several minutes in between taking the order and putting the order in to the cooks.

D. He should not worry about confusing an order; after all, everyone can switch things around until it’s right.

Answer: A

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 190

Learning goals: the nature of memory

 

5. _____ refers to the process of transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory.

A. Storage

B. Retrieval

C. Decay

D. Encoding

Answer: D

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: easy

Feedback: page 191

Learning goals: memory encoding

 

6. Attention, deep processing, elaboration, and the use of mental imagery are _____ processes.

A. encoding

B. storage

C. retrieval

D. chunking

Answer: A

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 191

Learning goals: memory encoding

 

7. Multitasking is an example of _____.

A. mental imagery

B. divided attention

C. priming

D. rehearsal

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 191

Learning goals: memory encoding

 

8. Elsa is studying for her psychology exam with the TV on in the background. Research on the effects of divided attention suggests that watching TV while studying will _____ Elsa’s exam performance.

A. slightly increase

B. strongly increase

C. decrease

D. have no effect on

Answer: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 191

Learning goals: memory encoding

 

9. _____ can increase memory performance.

A. Selective attention (focusing on relevant information and ignoring irrelevant information)

B. Elaboration

C. Imagery

D. All of these

Answer: D

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: pages 191-194

Learning goals: memory encoding

 

10. Fifteen-year-old Matt and his father are in an electronics store looking at video game systems. Matt gives his father a complete breakdown of the pros and cons of each of the different video game systems on display. According to research on encoding processes, Matt is able to accurately recall all this information because he _____.

A. has shallowly processed this information

B. has deeply processed this information

C. has processed this information at an intermediate level

D. used non-linguistic encoding processes

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 191

Learning goals: memory encoding

 

11. According to research, which is the most effective elaboration technique?

A. Thinking of physical characteristics

B. Thinking of smells

C. Thinking of self-references

D. Thinking of sounds

Answer: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: pages 192-193

Learning goals: memory encoding

 

12. Your roommate Chuck is having difficulty in his chemistry class. He asks you for advice on how to improve his memory of the material. You suggest that rather than trying to memorize the definitions, he should learn the concept by coming up with real-world examples. You tell Chuck to work on making links between new information and everything he already knows. Which of the following memory strategies are you recommending to Chuck?

A. Elaboration

B. Imagery

C. Chunking

D. Selective attention

Answer: A

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: pages 192-193

Learning goals: memory encoding

 

13. ______ of information is linked with neural activity, especially in the brain’s left frontal lobe.

A. Self-reference

B. Forgetting

C. Chunking

D. Elaboration

Answer: D

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: pages 192-193

Learning goals: memory encoding

 

14. According to _____, memory for pictures is better than memory for words because pictures, at least those that can be named, are stored as both image codes and verbal codes.

A. Ebbinghaus’ curve of forgetting

B. Atkinson-Shiffrin theory

C. the dual-code hypothesis

D. connectionism or parallel distributed processing (PDP)

Answer: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: easy

Feedback: page 194

Learning goals: memory encoding

 

15.______states that memory storage involves three separate systems: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.

A. The dual-code hypothesis

B. Atkinson-Shiffrin theory

C. Ebbinghaus’ curve of forgetting

D. Connectionism, or parallel distributed processing (PDP)

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: easy

Feedback: page 195

Learning goals: memory storage

 

16. How long does information last in sensory memory?

A. A fraction of a second to several seconds

B. 30-60 seconds

C. 2-3 minutes

D. 5 minutes

Answer: A

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: easy

Feedback: page 195

Learning goals: memory storage

 

17. Which of the following memory systems has a time frame of up to 30 seconds?

A. Sensory memory

B. Short-term memory

C. Long-term memory

D. Schemas

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: easy

Feedback: page 196

Learning goals: memory storage

 

18. Information can last up to a lifetime in ______.

A. sensory memory

B. short-term memory

C. long-term memory

D. working memory

Answer: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: easy

Feedback: page 198

Learning goals: memory storage

 

19. According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin theory of memory, memory storage involves which of the following three systems?

A. Attentive memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory

B. Sensory memory, selective memory, and long-term memory

C. Sensory memory, selective memory, and exhaustive memory

D. Sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory

Answer: D

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: easy

Feedback: page 195

Learning goals: memory encoding

 

20. Although _____ is rich and detailed, we lose the information in it quickly unless we use certain strategies that transfer it into other memory systems.

A. sensory memory

B. selective memory

C. long-term memory

D. declarative memory

Answer: A

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 195-196

Learning goals: memory encoding

 

21. Sensory memory ______.

A. holds information acquired through our senses for a brief amount of time

B. is a form of short-term memory

C. transfers information directly to long-term memory

D. All of these

Answer: A

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: easy

Feedback: page 195

Learning goals: memory storage

 

22. When you are asked to recall your first day of kindergarten, you rely on _____, whereas when you are asked to recall the name of a person you just met a few seconds ago, you rely on _____.

A. sensory memory/ long-term memory

B. long-term memory/ short-term or working memory

C. long-term memory/ procedural memory

D. semantic memory/ long-term memory

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 195

Learning goals: memory storage

 

23. Unrehearsed information stored in short-term memory lasts about _____.

A. three minutes

B. two hours

C. one day

D. 30 seconds

Answer: D

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: easy

Feedback: page 196

Learning goals: memory storage

 

24._______ refers to auditory sensory memory, whereas _____ refers to visual sensory memory.

A. Iconic memory / echoic memory

B. Declarative memory / nondeclarative memory

C. Echoic memory / iconic memory

D. Nondeclarative memory / declarative memory

Answer: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: easy

Feedback: page 196

Learning goals: memory encoding

 

25. Short-term memory has a _____ capacity than sensory memory and a_____ duration.

A. more limited / longer

B. less limited / longer

C. larger / shorter

D. more limited / shorter

Answer: A

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 196

Learning goals: memory encoding

 

26. George Miller’s classic research showed that the average capacity of short-term or working memory is between _____ units of information.

A. 2 and 7

B. 5 and 9

C. 7 and 12

D. 9 and 12

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: pages 196-197

Learning goals: memory storage

 

27. Laura met the man of her dreams at a party last Friday. She didn't have paper or a cell phone when she met Mr. Right so she had to commit his phone number to memory without writing it down. The whole way home that night Laura tried to remember his 7-digit number by repeating it to herself over and over again. Laura is trying to increase her memory performance by using which of the following strategies?

A. Elaboration

B. The primacy effect

C. Rehearsal

D. Context dependent memory

Answer: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 197

Learning goals: memory storage

 

28. Chunking involves _____.

A. quickly scanning information for relevant details

B. immediately forgetting relevant information

C. using Miller’s framework for memory retrieval

D. reorganizing information that exceeds the 7 plus or minus 2 rule into smaller meaningful units

Answer: D

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 197

Learning goals: memory storage

 

29. When asked to memorize the 15 letters, C I A C B S A B C F B I I R S, Mary reorganizes them into CIA, CBS, ABC, FBI, and IRS. Mary used the tactic of _____.

A. mental structuring

B. visual structuring

C. chunking

D. cueing

Answer: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: easy

Feedback: page 197

Learning goals: memory storage

 

30.Shannonis an excellent student. She rewrites her class notes after each class. Rewriting her notes is a form of _____.

A. rehearsal

B. priming

C. chunking

D. imagery

Answer: A

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 197

Learning goals: memory storage

 

31. According to Baddeley’s view of the three components of working memory, the ______ is specialized to briefly store speech-based information.

A. visuospatial working memory

B. central executive

C. phonological loop

D. long-term memory

Answer: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 197

Learning goals: memory storage

 

32. If all of the information on the hard drive of your computer is like long-term memory, then _____, like RAM, is comparable to what you actually have open and active at any given moment.

A. semantic memory

B. working memory

C. declarative memory

D. procedural memory

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: hard

Feedback: page 197

Learning goals: memory storage

 

33. According toBaddeley’s view of the three components of working memory, the _____ acts like a supervisor who monitors which information deserves our attention and which we should ignore. It also selects which strategies to use to process information and solve problems.

A. visuospatial working memory

B. central executive

C. phonological loop

D. amygdala

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 198

Learning goals: memory storage

 

34. ______ includes the systems involved in procedural memory, classical conditioning, and priming.

A. Explicit memory

B. Implicit memory

C. Episodic memory

D. Semantic memory

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 201

Learning goals: memory storage

 

35. ______ can be further subdivided into episodic and semantic memory.

A. Sensory memory

B. Implicit memory

C. Explicit memory

D. Working memory

Answer: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 199

Learning goals: memory storage

 

36. Your text discusses a famous case study of H.M., a patient who had severe epilepsy. H.M. underwent surgery that involved removing the hippocampus and a portion of the temporal lobes of both hemispheres in his brain. After the surgery, his epilepsy was cured but his memory was impaired. Which of the following best describes the effect that surgery had on H.M.’s memory?

A. H.M. developed an inability to form new memories that outlive working memory.

B. H.M. showed major deficits in sensory, short-term, and long-term memory.

C. H.M.’s procedural memory suffered the most damage.

D. H.M. could not learn new physical tasks.

Answer: A

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 199

Learning goals: memory storage

 

 

37. ______ has to do with remembering who, what, where, when, and why. ______ has to do with remembering how.

A. Semantic memory / episodic memory

B. Episodic memory / semantic memory

C. Implicit memory / explicit memory

D. Explicit memory / implicit memory

Answer: D

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: pages 199-202

Learning goals: memory storage

 

38. Whereas _____ memory involves the conscious recollection of facts and events, ___________ memory involves nonconscious knowledge derived from past experience.

A. Declarative (explicit) / nondeclarative (implicit)

B. Nondeclarative (implicit) / declarative (explicit)

C. Short-term / long-term

D. Long-term / short-term

Answer: A

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: pages 199-202

Learning goals: memory storage

 

39. Being able to consciously recall information from the past and recite it involves what type of memory?

A. Sensory

B. Short-term

C. Declarative

D. Nondeclarative

Answer: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: pages 199-201

Learning goals: memory storage

 

40. Your knowledge of the alphabet and multiplication tables is stored in your _____ memory.

A. episodic

B. semantic

C. autobiographical

D. implicit

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 200

Learning goals: memory storage

 

41. _____ is autobiographical.

A. Sensory memory

B. Implicit memory

C. Nondeclarative memory

D. Episodic memory

Answer: D

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 200

Learning goals: memory storage

 

42. Jillian was in a car accident and sustained a serious head trauma. Since the surgery, she has forgotten her name, career, and other vital information about herself.  Yet, she is still able to talk, know what words mean, and have general knowledge about the world, such as what day it is or who currently is the president of the U.S. This behavior suggests that Jillian’s _____ is impaired, but her _____ is still functioning.

A. episodic memory / semantic memory

B. semantic memory / episodic memory

C. sensory memory / long-term memory

D. declarative  memory / nondeclarative memory

Answer: A

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: hard

Feedback: page 200

Learning goals: memory storage

 

43. In which subsystem of long-term memory is your knowledge of how to drive a car and how to ride a bike stored?

A. Episodic memory

B. Semantic memory

C. Nondeclarative (implicit) memory

D. Declarative (explicit memory

Answer: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: pages 201-202

Learning goals: memory storage

 

44. Implicit memory, procedural memory, and priming are all part of _____.

A. declarative memory

B. nondeclarative memory

C. episodic memory

D. working memory

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: pages 201-202

Learning goals: memory storage

 

45. ______ is considered a subsystem of implicit memory.

A. Priming

B. Procedural memory

C. Classical conditioning

D. All of these

Answer: D

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: pages 201-202

Learning goals: memory encoding

 

46. Neurological studies on memory have revealed that the______ play an important role in explicit memory and that the _____ play an important role in implicit memory.

A. hippocampus and temporal lobe / cerebellum and cerebral cortex

B. hypothalamus / corpus callosum

C. cerebellum / hypothalamus

D. basal ganglia / thalamus

Answer: A

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: hard

Feedback: pages 205-207

Learning goals: memory storage

 

47. Working memory _____.

A. has an unlimited capacity

B. has the most constrained capacity of any memory system

C. is a passive memory system

D. is an active memory system

Answer: D

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 197

Learning goals: memory storage

 

48. You decide to go to a hypnotist to try to stop smoking. The hypnotist asks you to remember and describe what sorts of things you did differently before you started smoking. Which memory system will you use most to comply with this request?

A. Your procedural memory system

B. Your permastore memory system

C. Your episodic memory system

D. Your nondeclarative memory system

Answer: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 200

Learning goals: memory storage

 

49. Recollections of your first family vacation toDisneylandare an example of a(n) _____.

A. implicit memory

B. nondeclarative memory

C. episodic memory

D. procedural memory

Answer: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 200

Learning goals: memory storage

 

50. Priming is a phenomenon that has been found to result in _____.

A. impaired explicit memory

B. enhanced memory retrieval

C. enhanced working memory

D. impaired semantic memory

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: easy

Feedback: page 201

Learning goals: memory storage

 

51. Although you had never been to the Fancy Foods Restaurant in your town, you weren’t at all surprised when the hostess seated you, handed you the menu, and informed you that your server would soon be there to take your order order. Shortly after, a man in a tuxedo came to your table. You knew exactly what was going to happen because you _____.

A. are a certified psychic

B. have a script for what happens in a restaurant

C. have been to similar Fancy Foods Restaurants in other towns

D. have a friend who works there

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: easy

Feedback: page 203

Learning goals: memory storage

 

52. People very quickly adapt to the procedures and behaviors appropriate at a birthday party. General knowledge of what to expect and how to behave at a birthday is called a(n)_____.

A. script

B. implicit memory

C. discovered memory

D. working memory

Answer: A

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 203

Learning goals: memory storage

 

53. The connectionist view of memory _____.

A. suggests that memories are organized sets of neurons that are routinely activated together

B. is consistent with research on brain function

C. helps to explain how priming a concept can influence behavior

D. All of these

Answer: D

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: pages 203-204

Learning goals: memory storage

 

54. According to the textbook, some of the answers to complex questions about neural mechanics of memory come from experimental studies of which animal?

A. Chimpanzee

B. Sea slug

C. Cats

D. Dogs

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: easy

Feedback: page 205

Learning goals: memory storage

 

55. Long-term potentiation is a concept that explains _____.

A. how people can remember material for several  months

B. how memory functions at the neuron level

C. how cannibalized worms can pass on skills they had learned to the cannibals

D. why students should study exam material over a period of days instead of hours

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: pages 205

Learning goals: memory storage

 

56. Brain research on memory shows that ______.

A. there is no single “memory center” in the brain

B. many different parts of the brain and nervous system are involved in the rich, complex process that is memory

C. implicit and explicit memory appear to involve different locations in the brain

D. All of these

Answer: D

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: pages 205-207

Learning goals: memory storage

 

57. The hippocampus, the temporal lobes in the cerebral cortex, and other areas of the limbic system play a very important role in _____ memory.

A. repressed

B. implicit

C. explicit

D. sensory

Answer: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: easy

Feedback: pages 199-201

Learning goals: memory storage

 

58. The cerebellum and __________ play an important role in implicit memory.

A. cerebral cortex

B. frontal lobes

C. corpus callosum

D. hypothalamus

Answer: A

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: easy

Feedback: page 207

Learning goals: memory storage

 

59. Your friend, Vince, suffered serious brain injury to his cerebellum in a motorcycle accident. What effect will this have on Vince’s life?

A. He probably won’t remember his name.

B. He probably won’t remember how to ride his motorcycle.

C. He probably won’t recognize his wife.

D. He probably won’t remember where he lives.

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: hard

Feedback: pages 205-207

Learning goals: memory storage

 

60. Margaret fell down her basement stairs and suffered serious injury to her amygdala. What memory problems is she most likely to have now?

A. Margaret will have difficulty remembering her address and telephone number.

B. Margaret will have difficulty adding numbers.

C. Margaret will have difficulty with emotional memories.

D. Margaret will have difficulty with short-term memories.

Answer: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: hard

Feedback: pages 205-207

Learning goals: memory storage

 

61. You smell a turkey roasting in the oven, and suddenly you are once again 6 years old and eagerly anticipating your family’s Thanksgiving dinner. Why does smell share such a special relationship with memory?

A. Smells have a direct superhighway to the brain structures involved in emotion and memory.

B. The neurons responsible for communicating information about smell are enhanced and fire their signals more quickly than regular neurons.

C. The region in the brain responsible for processing information about smell is much larger and more complex than that of any other sense.

D. All of these

Answer: A

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 206

Learning goals: memory storage

 

62. Retrieval is the process of _____.

A. transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory

B. bringing information to mind whenever needed

C. storing information so that it can be retained over time

D. metamemory

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: easy

Feedback: page 207

Learning goals: memory retrieval

 

63. Having a better memory for items at the beginning of a list demonstrates the _____, whereas having a better memory for items at the end of a list demonstrates the _____.

A. recency effect / primacy effect

B. primacy effect / recency effect

C. flashbulb memory effect / metamemory effect

D. metamemory effect / flashbulb memory effect

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 208

Learning goals: memory retrieval

 

64. George has just graduated from college and is going on his first big job interview. He has learned that there are 10 other applicants for the job. Because of information on the serial position effect that he learned in his psychology class, George asks to be either the first or the last candidate interviewed. Why?

A. The serial position effect predicts that either the first or the last job applicant interviewed will be remembered better than the applicant interviewed second.

B. The serial position effect predicts that the candidate interviewed in the “middle” position will be viewed less favorably than the other two applicants.

C. Research has shown that the serial position effect is used often by management to arbitrarily hire job applicants.

D. Research has shown that people interviewed either early or late in the day are evaluated most positively.

Answer: A

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: hard

Feedback: page 208

Learning goals: memory retrieval

 

65. According to the serial position effect, if you are a waiter trying to remember all the orders for a table of 7, you should pay particular attention to the __________ orders, because these are the ones you are most likely to forget.

A. first and second

B. sixth and seventh

C. third, fourth, and fifth

D. first, third, and seventh

Answer: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 208

Learning goals: memory retrieval

 

66. Multiple choice exams involve testing a student's ____ abilities, whereas essay exams involve testing ____ abilities.

A. episodic memory / semantic memory

B. semantic memory / episodic memory

C. recall / recognition

D. recognition / recall

Answer: D

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 209

Learning goals: memory retrieval

 

67. Asking an eyewitness to describe a suspect’s physical appearance to a sketch artist would be an example of a _____ task, whereas asking an eyewitness to identify a suspect on the basis of a lineup of five possible assailants is an example of a _____ task.

A. recognition / recall

B. recall / recognition

C. rehearsal / elaboration

D. chunking / rehearsal

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 209

Learning goals: memory retrieval

 

68. Samantha prides herself on “never forgetting a face,” although she frequently cannot put the correct name with a specific “face.” According to your textbook, Samantha is really saying that she _____.

A. is better at recognition than at recall

B. is better at recall than at recognition

C. is better at memory retrieval than at memory reconstruction

D. is better at memory reconstruction than at memory recall

Answer: A

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: hard

Feedback: page 209

Learning goals: memory retrieval

 

69. According to the principles of context-dependent learning, your score on this exam (memory performance) would be best if you studied _____.

A. at home in your bedroom

B. while watching television in the living room

C. in the same classroom where you listen to lecture

D. at the library

Answer: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: hard

Feedback: page 210

Learning goals: memory retrieval

 

70. Your roommate, Delores, asks your advice on how to best study for her final exams. Because of your knowledge of context-dependent memory, you recommend that she _____.

A. study with her favorite rock music playing in the background and in her most comfortable chair

B. study in the library with friends

C. study quietly in the classroom in which she is to take her exam

D. study with a partner in the dorm

Answer: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: hard

Feedback: page 210

Learning goals: memory retrieval

 

71. Tamara is writing a paper about reactions to the tragedy that occurred at theTwinTowerson September 11, 2001.  She interviews ten of her classmates and asks them to remember that day. She is surprised to learn that nearly all of the students she interviewed offer very detailed, vivid accounts of where they were and what they were doing when they first learned of the terrorist attacks. Tamara has discovered that most of her classmates have ______ of September 11, 2001.

A. a repressed memory

B. a flashbulb memory

C. implicit but not explicit memories

D. All of these

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 212

Learning goals: memory retrieval

 

72. Motivated forgetting and repressed memories are usually associated with what type of memories?

A. Factual information from studying

B. Traumatic memories

C. Sensory memories

D. Flashbulb memory

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 213

Learning goals: memory retrieval

 

73. Janel was sexually abused by her uncle when she was 5 years old. This experience was so devastating and traumatic that she removed the memory from her conscious awareness. This is an example of a(n) _____.

A. implicit memory

B. schema

C. repressed memory

D. elaboration

Answer: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: pages 213-214

Learning goals: memory retrieval

 

74. Aaron went to school one day with his zipper down. He considers it his most embarrassing moment ever and would rather forget that the event ever occurred. Aaron is exhibiting ______.

A. emotional memory syndrome

B. displacement

C. memory decay

D. motivated forgetting

Answer: D

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: hard

Feedback: page 214

Learning goals: memory retrieval

 

75. Cognitive psychologist Jonathan Schooler has suggested that the term recovered memories be replaced with the term discovered memories. Why?

A. Individuals with “discovered” memories experience them as real, whether or not the memories are accurate.

B. “Discovered” memories are more accurate and detailed than “recovered” memories.

C. The term discovered memories avoids the negative connotations of the term recovered memories.

D. Individuals with “discovered” memories realize that the memories may be inaccurate.

Answer: A

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 216

Learning goals: memory retrieval

 

76. Eyewitness accounts of crimes are _____.

A. always very accurate

B. never accurate

C. prone to errors

D. most accurate when witnesses speak to each other before talking to police

Answer: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: pages 214-215

Learning goals: memory retrieval

 

77. While waiting for the police to arrive after an armed robbery, the store manager and all the customers want to make sure they give an accurate account of the robbery and decide upon the relevant details to tell the police. What is a likely outcome of this “collaborative” sharing of information?

A. The eyewitnesses will now be more accurate in their accounts.

B. The eyewitnesses will now report more similar accounts.

C. The eyewitnesses will be more likely to be able to recognize the assailant, especially if he is from a different ethnic group than they are.

D. The eyewitnesses will more effectively discover their differences in perceptions.

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: hard

Feedback: page 215

Learning goals: memory retrieval

 

78. According to Hermann Ebbinghaus, _____.

A. most forgetting occurs long after we originally learned something.

B. most forgetting occurs soon after we originally learned something.

C. motivated forgetting is a good treatment for overcoming traumatic events.

D. motivated forgetting is a poor treatment for overcoming traumatic events.

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 217

Learning goals: forgetting

 

79. An encoding failure occurs when _____.

A. information fails to be stored into long-term memory

B. newly learned information interferes with pre-existing knowledge

C. pre-existing knowledge interferes with newly learned information

D. the number of neural connections decreases over time

Answer: A

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 217

Learning goals: forgetting

 

80. Proactive and retroactive interference are examples of _____.

A. encoding failures

B. storage failures

C. retrieval failures

D. brain damage

Answer: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 218

Learning goals: forgetting

 

81. A few years ago, you had a boyfriend named Steve. Now, you have a new boyfriend named Stephen. Because of _____, you sometimes call Stephen by Steve’s name.

A. retroactive interference

B. the Ebbinghaus effect

C. latent forgetting

D. proactive interference

Answer: D

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: hard

Feedback: page 218

Learning goals: forgetting

 

82. You are taking both a Spanish and a French course this semester. As you study the vocabulary words for your French test, you realize that the French words are disrupting the memory of the Spanish vocabulary words you studied last week. This is an example of _____.

A. retroactive interference

B. proactive interference

C. transience

D. transference

Answer: A

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: hard

Feedback: page 218

Learning goals: forgetting

 

83. According to decay theory, why do memories fade?

A. There is a limited amount of storage available for long-term memories, so older memories must decay and make room for new memories.

B. The cerebellum cannot hold on to information long-term.

C. Synaptic connections become broken.

D. A neurochemical “memory trace” disintegrates over time.

Answer: D

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: hard

Feedback: pages 218-219

Learning goals: forgetting

 

84. Lucy sustained a brain injury in a car accident. Although Lucy's memories of her life before the accident are intact, she is no longer able to form new, long-term memories. Every night when she goes to bed, her memories of what she had done that day are lost. Lucy suffers from ______.

A. retrograde amnesia

B. anterograde amnesia

C. infantile amnesia

D. displacement

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: hard

Feedback: page 220

Learning goals: forgetting

 

85. A person suffering from reterograde amnesia will _____.

B. lose past memories and be unable to make new ones

A. lose past memories but be able to make new ones

C. recall past memories but not be able to make new ones

D. lose some past memories but have only the sporadic ability to make new memories

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty level: hard

Feedback: page 220

Learning goals: forgetting

 

86. According to your textbook, an individual’s autobiographical memory forms the core of the individual’s _____.

A. cognitive system

B. emotional system

C. personal identity

D. brain

Answer: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: easy

Feedback: page 223

Learning goals: tips from the science of memory—for studying and for life

 

87. Autobiographical memories are important because they _____.

A. are the basis of social bonding and sharing ourselves with others

B. allow us to learn from our experiences and apply these life lessons in challenging situations

C. are the basis of our identity or sense of self

D. All of these

Answer: D

Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: pages 223-224

Learning goals: tips from the science of memory—for studying and for life

 

88. The adage most appropriate to memory function and aging is _____.

A. “Use it or lose it”

B. “Better late than never”

C. “A little goes a long way”

D. “Seize the moment”

Answer: A

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 224

Learning goals: tips from the science of memory—for studying and for life

 

89. Research has shown that individuals who are ______ tend to cope better with a variety of assaults to the brain, including Alzheimer disease, stroke, head injury, and even poisoning with neurotoxins.

A. optimists and who go through life smiling and helping others to feel good about themselves

B. physically fit, aggressive, competitive, and law-abiding

C. educated, have high IQs, and remain mentally engaged in complex tasks

D. physically attractive, physically fit, easy-going, and interested in reading and yoga

Answer: C

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 224

Learning goals: tips from the science of memory—for studying and for life

 

90. _____ leads to the accumulation of a “cognitive store,” an emergency stash of mental capacity that allows individuals to avoid the negative effects of harm to the brain.

A. An active physical life

B. An active mental life

C Singing

D. Praying

Answer: B

Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty level: moderate

Feedback: page 224

Learning goals: tips from the science of memory—for studying and for life

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

91. Describe the Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory. What three processes do psychologists believe are essential to understanding memory?

Answer: Psychologists define memory as the retention of information or experience over time. According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model, in order to remember, a person must encode, store, and retrieve information.

Bloom’s taxonomy: knowledge

Difficulty: moderate

Feedback: pages 195-196

Learning goals: the nature of memory

 

92. You friend Jane is having difficulty “taking in” the information in her history class so she asks you to use your expertise in psychology to offer some suggestions on how to improve her memory performance. Discuss how attention, deep processing, elaboration, and the use of mental imagery can affect the encoding process.

Answer: Being able to engage in selective perception and focus on the subject matter improves encoding. Deep-level processing, or thinking about the meaning of the stimulus as opposed to merely noticing the physical features of the stimulus, also improves memory. Elaboration involves making a number of different connections between new information and information we already know. Typically, higher levels of elaboration are linked with better memory performance. Finally, using visual imagery is one of the most powerful ways to make memories distinctive. Pavio’s dual-code hypothesis claims that memory for pictures is better than memory for words because pictures—at least those that can be named—are stored as both image codes and verbal codes. Thus, when we use imagery to remember, we have two potential avenues by which we can retrieve information. Given these results, you tell Jane that she should: (1) not multitask or divide her attention when studying, (2) engage in deep-level processing by going above and beyond the rote memorization of historical names and dates, (3) elaborate about how the historical figures and events she’s learning about relate to her own life, and (4) create a visual picture of every historical figure or event she needs to remember.

Bloom’s taxonomy: application

Difficulty: hard

Feedback: pages 191-194

Learning goals: memory encoding

 

93. Compare and contrast the short-term memory system with the working memory system.

Answer: Short-term memory is passive, whereas working is an active memory system that allows us to hold information temporarily as we perform cognitive tasks. Working memory is a kind of mental “workbench” on which the brain manipulates and assembles information to help us understand, make decisions, and solve problems. Both short-term and working memory have limited capacities.

Bloom’s taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty: moderate

Feedback: pages 196-198

Learning goals: memory storage

 

94. What are schemas and how are they relevant to memory?

Answer: A schema is a preexisting mental concept or framework that helps people to organize and interpret information. Schemas from prior encounters with the environment influence the way we encode, make inferences about, and retrieve information.

Bloom’s taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty: moderate

Feedback: pages 202-203

Learning goals: memory storage

 

95. What is long-term potentiation and why is it important to the process of memory?

Answer: Long-term potentiation explains how memory functions at the neuron level. In line with connectionist theory, this concept states that if two neurons are activated at the same time, the connection between them—and thus the memory—may be strengthened.

Bloom’s taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty: moderate

Feedback: pages 35-36

Learning goals: memory storage

 

96. Describe the distinction between recall and recognition, and give an example of each. Which process typically yields better memory performance?

Answer: Recall is a memory task in which the individual has to retrieve previously learned information. Recognition is a memory task in which the individual only has to identify (recognize) learned items. According to the text, multiple choice tests assess recognition (the student only has to recognize the answer with a given set of possible options), whereas essay tests assess recall (the student has to retrieve the information “from scratch”). Recognition typically yields better memory performance. For example, a witness who has to identify a suspect in a police lineup (recognition task) may find it easier to point out the correct suspect than a witness who has to describe the characteristics of the suspect to a police sketch artist (recall task).

Bloom’s taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty: moderate

Feedback: page 209

Learning goals: memory retrieval

 

97. How can the validity and reliability of eyewitness testimony be improved?

Answer: Memory decays quickly, so if possible witnesses should try to recall the event as early as possible, as memory begins to decay rapidly after two hours. Unlike a video, human memories can be altered by new information. Thus, if witnesses talk among themselves, this dialogue can contaminate memories. Unlike a video camera, humans are also influenced by their pre-existing attitudes and emotions. Research on bias shows that people of one ethnic group are less likely to recognize individual differences among people of another ethnic group. In sum, eyewitness testimony research suggests that police officers should isolate witnesses as soon as possible, ask them to recall the event immediately, and be cognizant of the fact that our attitudes can color our perceptions.

Bloom’s Taxonomy: synthesis

Difficulty Level: hard

Feedback: pages 214-215

Learning goals: memory retrieval

 

98. Define the distinction between proactive and retroactive interference.

Answer: According to interference theory, people forget, not because memories are lost from storage, but because other information gets in the way of what they want to remember. There are two kinds of interference: proactive and retroactive. Proactive interference occurs when material that was learned earlier disrupts the recall of material learned later. Retroactive interference occurs when material learned later disrupts the retrieval of information learned earlier.

Bloom’s taxonomy: comprehension

Difficulty: moderate

Feedback: page 218

Learning goals: forgetting

 

99. Emily and Samantha were in a boating accident and both now suffer from amnesia. Emily has been diagnosed with retrograde amnesia, whereas Samantha has been diagnosed with anterograde amnesia. Describe what Emily and Samantha will likely forget.

Answer: Amnesia involves a loss of memory. Anterograde amnesia is a memory disorder that affects the retention of new information and events. Retrograde amnesia involves memory loss for a segment of the past but not for new events. Emily will lose memories that were formed before the boating accident (e.g., her name or phone number), but will still have the ability to remember things that occurred after the accident. Samantha’s memories of her life before the accident will remain intact. However, Samantha will not be able to remember things that happened after the accident. Like H.M., Samantha will lose the ability to form new long-term memories.

Bloom’s taxonomy: application

Difficulty: hard

Feedback: page 220

Learning goals: forgetting

 

100. Based on what you’ve learned in this chapter, give three examples of specific things you could do to improve your memory performance.

Answer: Research suggests that there are several things you could do to improve memory performance. First, you could improve your encoding. Don’t multitask or divide your attention when studying. Engaging in deep-level processing, high elaboration, and visual imagery will also improve your encoding. Second, you could improve how you store information. Rewrite your notes and read your text multiple times, as rehearsal improves memory performance. Organizing or chunking new incoming information into condensed units will also improve memory performance. You could also improve your retrieval. Research on context-dependent memory shows that you should try to match your studying and testing environment. Testing yourself as you are studying will provide you with good retrieval practice. Finally, you should avoid cramming or engaging in massed practice and instead spread your study times out. Take care of your brain by providing nourishment and sleep.

Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

Difficulty Level: hard

Feedback: pages 221-225

Learning goals: applying tips from the science of memory to your studies and your life